Linux Booting

A linux system is in most cases loaded in multiple phases:

  1. Boot loader is loaded into RAM by BIOS/UEFI
  2. Boot loader is executed.
    • It then examines available mass storage defices
    • Finds the OS Kernel and loads this into RAM
    • Executes the Kernel
  3. The Kernel then initializes the hardware
  4. Loads the Init System and executes it.
  5. The Init System then
    • Instructs the kernel to load necessary drivers
    • Load necessary programs to have a operating userland
    • Setup monitor output
    • Load User-Interface
  6. System is booted and ready for login by user


The main user interface on linux system, is the command line.
It is a text based interface.

Originating from the early mainframe system with tele typer interface.

Log In

Linux has only one predefined user: root

It is the super user with the right to do everything in the system.

In the provided virtual machine image, are two prominent log in informations:

  • basher using the Bash shell program
  • zasher using the ZSH shell program

This are two users in the system.
The passwords for this users, are (in same order):

  • bashed
  • zashed

With the username and password typed in, the user is at its Home-Directory.
(Hint: For the password, no characters are printed)

On Unix-Systems a user is always in a Directory.


The Shell