A linux system is in most cases loaded in multiple phases:
- Boot loader is loaded into RAM by BIOS/UEFI
- Boot loader is executed.
- It then examines available mass storage defices
- Finds the OS Kernel and loads this into RAM
- Executes the Kernel
- The Kernel then initializes the hardware
- Loads the Init System and executes it.
- The Init System then
- Instructs the kernel to load necessary drivers
- Load necessary programs to have a operating userland
- Setup monitor output
- Load User-Interface
- System is booted and ready for login by user
The main user interface on linux system, is the command line.
It is a text based interface.
Originating from the early mainframe system with tele typer interface.
Linux has only one predefined user: root
It is the super user with the right to do everything in the system.
In the provided virtual machine image, are two prominent log in informations:
basherusing the Bash shell program
zasherusing the ZSH shell program
This are two users in the system.
The passwords for this users, are (in same order):
With the username and password typed in, the user is at its Home-Directory.
(Hint: For the password, no characters are printed)
On Unix-Systems a user is always in a Directory.